The Glossary

BPI – Business Process Interfaces

Refers to custom built Enterprise Resource Platforms that are proprietary softwares and interfaces designed and developed by PBOPlus. They are offered as augmentations to the Process Consulting solutions PBOPlus provides, as well as selectively available as standalone options for enterprises.

ERP - Enterprise resource planning (ERP)

is a process used by companies to manage and integrate the important parts of their businesses. They help them implement resource planning by integrating all of the processes needed to run their companies with a single system. An ERP software system can also integrate planning, purchasing inventory, sales, marketing, finance, human resources, and more.

OEE – Overall Equipment Effectiveness

Applicable in Manufacturing plants, it is a cumulative index rating that measures the Availability and Performance of the machines and the Quality of the output . OEE = (Good Count × Ideal Cycle Time) / Planned Production Time.


3T Standard Operating Procedure. It refers to the modified , high control SOPs that are developed by PBOPlus as part of their Process improvement strategy. Each task, from macro tasks like production planning, to micro tasks like oil changes in a particular machine are standardised in an SOP by PBOPlus to ensure homogenous quality of execution on the shop floor, and higher effectiveness of the measure.

3T refers to Target-Tolerance-Test. Each SOP is fitted with established Targets in terms of time and deliverable, Tolerances to indicate the acceptable level of variance from Target, and Test protocols to keep the SOP up to date

Industry 4.0

Is a descriptive term that refers to the fourth industrial revolution as it pertains to factories and manufacturing. industry 4.0 is the trend towards automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies and processes which include cyber-physical systems (CPS), the internet of things (IoT), industrial internet of things (IIOT), cloud computing , cognitive computing and artificial intelligence. Key concepts in this include self-regulating, Smart Factories that communicate and cooperate with humans both internally and across value chains. The overall dividend here is sustainably matching the pace of change.


Silos are the de facto walls between departments and teams within an organisation that limit the flow of information, accountability and functionality. An organisation may see silos between , for example, the Marketing and Product Development team wherein one is not aware of the operational concerns or overall targets of the other. This commonly leads to missed targets, inflated TATs and bloated costs.

7 Chakra

Is the proprietary Consulting model owned by PBOPlus. Its model encapsulates the entirety of a value chain, from end to end and splits it into 7 Modules or Chakras. They are :

  • Process
  • Structure
  • People
  • Technology
  • Performance
  • Zero Delay Services
  • Subconscious

More information on this product can be found at -

Root Cause Analysis

It is a part of the Total Quality management toolbox that has been in use at manufacturing sites. It is a problem-solving process that aims to deter future recurrences. It does so by addressing the factor that led to the chain of cause-and-effect that ultimately resulted in a process failure. It is an integral part of the PBOPlus toolkit when conducting process diagnostics

Cleaning | Lubrication | Refitment | Inspection

is a hygiene level tactic used to create a base for a larger autonomous Machine Maintenance regime. It prevents machine and process breakdown by standardizing basic low-risk maintenance and strict adherence to machine specs and protocols. It is part of PBOPlus’ Breakdown Reduction Strategy


Is a combination of control systems, such as computers or robots, and information technologies such as ERPs/BPIs for handling different processes and machineries in an industry to augment human deployment. It is the second step beyond mechanization in the scope of industrialization. It leads to :

  • Higher productivity
  • Higher Quality
  • Higher flexibility
  • Higher Information Accuracy
  • Higher safety

PBOPlus specialises in automation centric process streamlining strategies. This is made possible by the process expertise of PBOPlus consultants, PBORobotics – the automation wing of PBOPlus, and PBOPlus BPIs. All of which are developed, monitored and implemented by PBOPlus.

IoT – Internet of Things

Is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. IoT is the basic information gathering framework of PBOPlus Automation Solutions.


Refers to a prototype developed for PBOPlus manufacturing client wherein a key stage of raw material processing was entirely automated by a single machine prototype. Testing and subsequent deployment led to increased productivity, capacity and throughput.

IPM –Integrated Packing Machine

is an automation solution that is currently in development by PBORobotics for PBOPlus. It automates the process after the processing of the raw material to the point that it is made freight-ready and dispatched. It is designed to increase capacity and throughput as well as, ensure a uniform quality quality control.

VoC – Voice of the Customer

Is a strategy that where customer feedback about their experiences with and expectations for products or services is actively sought. It focuses on customer needs, expectations, understandings, and product improvement. It is a closed loop process. VoC has to be addressed by process refitment and product development. It is commonly employed by PBOPlus when consulting FMCG and Commodity Goods clients.

Cue | Routine | Reward | Craving

Part of the 7 Chakra model for enterprise wide change, the CRRC model is employed to ensure that change in internal processes of a company are sustainable and easy to adapt to. Cue | Routine | Reward | Craving are the four stages of habit formation. A person adapting to a change in a routine has to triggered by a cue, have a ready routine to carry out, receive a determined reward and should experience a mechanism that creates a craving for more.

PLC – Programmable Logic Controller

PLCs were first developed in the automobile manufacturing industry to provide flexible, ruggedized and easily programmable controllers to replace hard-wired relays, timers and sequencers. They are now used by PBORobotics as high-reliability automation controllers suitable for harsh environments as part of their Automation and Robotics solutions.

SMT Components – Surface Mount Technology

Surface mount technology is the main technology used for PCB assembly within electronics manufacturing and is actively used within PBORobotics protypes. SMT allows automated PCB assembly and soldering to be used, and this brings significant improvements in reliability as well as enormous savings in cost.

RPA – Robotic Process Automation

Is the technology where computer software, or a automation solution can be configured to emulate and integrate the actions of a human interacting within digital systems to execute a business process. RPA robots utilize the user interface to capture data and manipulate applications .They interpret, trigger responses and communicate with other systems in order to perform on a vast variety of repetitive tasks.

CCM – Centrifugal Casting Machine

Is a machine used to cast molten metal into a cylindrical / girder billet for the purpose of further use in the manufacturing of piping and tubing.

Molten metal is slow poured into the top through a hopper. The machines feed ducting is cooled by air and water and the metal emerges on the end in the desired dimension / shape.


PPK is an index of process performance which tells how well a system is meeting specifications . PPK calculations use actual sigma (sigma of the individuals ), and shows how the system is actually running when compared to the specifications. This index also takes into account how well the process is centered within the specification limits.

If PPK is 1.0, the system is producing 99.73% of its output within specifications. The larger the Ppk, the less the variation between process output and specifications.

If PPK is between 0 and 1.0, not all process output meets specifications.